Gas chromatography is one of the most prevalent techniques used in the evaluation of hydrocarbon assets during exploration, production and distribution through characterization of the linear and branched alkanes, cycloalkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons, and asphaltenes. The measurement of bulk composition of hydrocarbon groups and individual compounds in gasoline is important for quality control as well as ensuring compliance with various governmental regulations. ASTM Method D8071 for gasoline analysis by GC-VUV significantly reduces GC complexity and run times compared to legacy ASTM methods for fuel analysis. The GC-VUV method results in a per-measurement information set that would typically require implementation of multiple ASTM methods (e.g. D5769, D5580, D1319, D6550, D3606, D4815, D5599, D5845) while being inherently more robust and production-worthy than the alternatives.
Known advantages of VUV Spectroscopy
ASTM D8071 method for complete and fully automated PIONA analysis
- Reports PIONA compound class mass % AND speciation of oxygenates and BTEX
- More complete and efficient than individual ASTM referee methods
- 2x faster, lower maintenance and less error prone than Reformulyzer
- Significantly faster, less labor intensive and error prone than DHA
Can be propagated beyond the R&D setting into Production
- Applicable to finished gasolines and gasoline range feeds such as FCC, reformates, light and heavy naphthas, etc.
- Easy to understand analysis by Beer-Lambert Law (same principle used in UV-Vis spectroscopy)
SEE THE LATEST ABOUT FUEL ANALYSIS BY GC-VUV
Learn more about the VUV PIONA+ product solution for fuel analysis by GC-VUV. It is suitable for use with finished gasoline, reformate, reformer feed, FCC, light naphtha, and heavy naphtha samples. VUV PIONA+ utilizes a software engine called VUV Analyze that provides automated compositional analysis. Bulk concentrations of the hydrocarbon classes of paraffins, isoparaffins, olefins, naphthenes, and aromatics (PIONA) are analyzed using the VUV Analyze automated data analysis software package.
WATCH THE PETROINDUSTRY NEWS WEBINAR TO LEARN MORE ABOUT ASTM D8071
Dr. Phillip Walsh describes the 34 minute method that provides total PIONA characterization with a single injection of finished gasoline.
Key features of the of ASTM D8071:
- Single injection
- Single 30m Rxi-1ms column
- ~30 minute run time
- No traps, pre-column tuning, or calibration requirements
- No special setup
This Gulf Coast Conference 2016 presentation from Dan Wispinski of Alberta Innovates Technology Future describes a comparison of GC-VUV (ASTM Method D8071) with detailed hydrocarbon analysis (DHA) and Reformulizer for the analysis of Paraffin, iso-Paraffin, Olefin, Naphthene, and Aromatic (PIONA) group types and individual compounds in gasoline samples. Mr. Wispinski concludes that the performance of the Reformulyzer was not as good as GC-VUV in this investigation, especially for olefins.
Solving Analytical Challenges in Fuels Refining
Key Features of VUV Spectroscopy
- High degree of data analysis automation reduces human error
- Intuitive spectral fingerprint compound identification and Beer’s Law quantitation eliminates guesswork
- Software deconvolution of co-eluting analytes allows chromatography runtimes to be deliberately compressed
- Proprietary algorithms automate compound class characterization
Shining a new light in gas chromatography and streaming gas applications.
Everything absorbs strongly in the VUV spectrum. Compounds can be unambiguously identified and quantitated in a variety of applications including oil & gas, forensics, fragrances & flavors, petrochemical, environmental, and life science. VUV detectors provide unmatched selectivity of isomers and co-eluting analytes without the need for chromatographic baseline resolution. Unlike legacy detection methods, VUV spectroscopy allows for more automated analysis with lower risk of errors, shorter chromatography run times, and higher analytical throughput.
- Universal, yet selective detector with very sensitive spectral response
- Easy deconvolution and quantitation of co‑eluting analytes
- Robust technology with no reliance on vacuum pumps
- No calibration required – 1st principle detection technique provides a predictable linear response
- A non-destructive technique that compliments mass spectrometry
Analysis of Long-Chain Unsaturated Fatty Acids by Ionic Liquid Gas Chromatography – Journal of Agricultural and Food ChemistryJournal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Analysis of Long-Chain Unsaturated Fatty Acids by Ionic Liquid Gas Chromatography – Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Four ionic liquid (IL) columns, SLB-IL59, SLB-IL60, SLB-IL65, and SLB-IL111, were evaluated for more rapid analysis or improved resolution of long-chain methyl and ethyl esters.
VUV Versus Industry – The Analytical ScientistThe Analytical Scientist
Vacuum Ultraviolet Absorbance Spectra – When a Little Means a LotJack Cochran, VUV Analytics
Jack Cochran, VUV Analytics
As a gas chromatographer using MS the coeluting-isomer problem didn’t bother me too much, as it allowed me to practice the art of separation. Inevitably though, critical compound separation leads to undesirable, longer GC run times, which brings us back to VUV and its uniqueness.
“The VUV detector has proven itself with the ability to distinguish olefins and aromatics from aliphatics – that’s a killer application given the complexity and time involved using any other technique. The VUV detector’s ability to perform a more accurate and much more robust PIONA analysis is an important milestone in its ongoing success.”
Bill Winniford, Fellow
Bill Winniford, Fellow, The Dow Chemical Company, Houston, Texas, USA
“VUV spectroscopy adds a dimension that is complementary to mass spectrometry, offering selectivity that is difficult to otherwise obtain.”
Hans-Gerd Janssen, Professor and Science Leader
Hans-Gerd Janssen, Professor, University of Amsterdam, and Science leader, Unilever Research Vlaardingen, the Netherlands
“One of the main advantages of VUV detection for us appeared to be the ability to gain more specific molecular information…co-elutions that we know exist but cannot be identified with FID can be unraveled.”
Pierre Giusti, Molecular Separation & Identification Service Manager, and Gaelle Jousset, Gas Chromatography Laboratory Manager
Pierre Giusti, Molecular Separation & Identification Service Manager, and Gaelle Jousset, Gas Chromatography Laboratory Manager, Research & Development, TOTAL Refining & Chemicals, Normandy, France
“The VUV detector will be used as a universal, calibration-free tool that provides the relative quantitative values of distinct molecules in mixtures in a rapid manner.”
Luigi Mondello, Chair of ISCC and GCxGC Conference in Riva del Garda, and Professor
Luigi Mondello, Chair of ISCC and GCxGC Conference in Riva del Garda, and Professor, University of Messina, Italy
“One thing that I really like about VUV is that it can be considered a universal detector but with the advantage of being familiar to us. We all used UV spectrometers in school.”
Nicholas Snow, Professor
Nicholas Snow, Professor, Seton Hall University, New Jersey, USA
“Eliminates ionization inefficiencies that are encountered in mass spectrometry analysis."
Mark R. Emmett, Ph.D.
Mark R. Emmett, Ph.D. Professor, The University of Texas Medical Branch Galveston, UTMB Cancer Research Center
“An amazingly simple concept extended into a powerful spectral region."
Tim Hossain, Ph.D.
Tim Hossain, Ph.D. Chief Scientist, Cerium Laboratories
“The VUV detector is a powerful new tool in the GC toolbox."
Kevin A. Schug, Ph.D.
Kevin A. Schug, Ph.D. Professor & Shimadzu Distinguished Professor of Analytical Chemistry, The University of Texas at Arlington